1 Introduction to Vacuum Technology

Figure 1.1
Overview of vacuum
Figure 1.2
Definition of total pressure
Figure 1.3
Definition of partial pressure
Figure 1.4
Mean free path between two collisions
Figure 1.5
Molecular number density (red, right-hand y axis) and mean free path (blue, left-hand y axis) for nitrogen at a temperature of 273.15 K
Figure 1.6
Profiles of the various types of flow regimes
Figure 1.7
Flow ranges in vacuum as a function of p · d
Figure 1.8
Conductance of a smooth round pipe as a function of the mean pressure in the pipe
Figure 1.9
Vapor pressure curves of various substances
Figure 1.10
Typical residual gas spectrum of a vessel evacuated by a turbomolecular pump

2 Basic calculations

Figure 2.1
No-load compression ratio for air with Roots pumps
Figure 2.2
Volume flow rate (pumping speed) of a pumping station with Hepta 100 and Okta 500
Figure 2.3
Drying system (schematic)
Figure 2.4
Roots pumping station for vapor condensation
Figure 2.5
Roots pumping station for vapor condensation
Figure 2.6
Roots pumping station for transformer drying
Figure 2.7
Gas throughput of different turbopumps at high process pressures
Figure 2.8
Vacuum system with pressure and throughput regulation

3 Mechanical components in vacuum

Figure 3.1
Temperature dependence of the elasticity modulus of austenitic stainless steel
Figure 3.2
Temperature dependence of the 0.2% yield point of austenitic stainless steel
Figure 3.3
De Long diagram
Figure 3.4
Cross section image of a laser weld
Figure 3.5
Cross section image of WIG orbital weld
Figure 3.6
O-ring seals in rectangular groove, trapezoidal-groove and in an angular position
Figure 3.7
ISO-KF connection with centering ring and clamping ring
Figure 3.8
ISO-KF flange mounted on base plate with centering ring and claw clamps
Figure 3.9
ISO-K connection with centering ring and double claw clamps
Figure 3.10
ISO-K flange mounted on base plate with centering ring and claw clamps
Figure 3.11
ISO-K flange mounted on base plate with O-ring nut and claw clamps for base plate with sealing groove
Figure 3.12
ISO-K flange mounted on base plate with O-ring nut and claw clamps for base plate with sealing groove
Figure 3.13
SO-F connection with centering ring and screws
Figure 3.14
ISO-K flange with bolt ring mounted on ISO-F flange with centering ring and screws
Figure 3.15
CF connection with copper flat gasket and screws
Figure 3.16
COF connection with copper wire seal and screws
Figure 3.17
EUV source chamber with cooling profiles and water-cooled flanges
Figure 3.18
Space simulation chamber with pillow plate cooling
Figure 3.19
CF viewport with glass-metal fusing
Figure 3.20
Electrical feedthrough with ceramically insulated wire conductor made of copper
Figure 3.21
Bellows-sealed angle valve
Figure 3.22
Inline valve with electropneumatic actuation
Figure 3.23
UHV gate valve
Figure 3.24
UHV all-metal gas dosing valve
Figure 3.25
Bellows-sealed UHV rotary feedthrough (cattail principle)
Figure 3.26
Magnetically coupled UHV rotary feedthrough
Figure 3.27
Elastomer-sealed rotary feedthrough
Figure 3.28
Z-axis precision manipulator
Figure 3.29
XY-axis precision manipulator

4 Vacuum generation

Figure 4.1
Overview of vacuum pumps
Figure 4.2
Operating principle of a rotary vane pump
Figure 4.3
Pfeiffer Vacuum rotary vane pumps
Figure 4.4
Accessories for rotary vane pumps
Figure 4.5
Operating principle of a diaphragm vacuum pump
Figure 4.6
Operating principle of a screw pump
Figure 4.7
HeptaDry rotors
Figure 4.8
HeptaDry with connections and accessories
Figure 4.9
Operating principle of an air cooled multi-stage Roots pump
Figure 4.10
Condensation of ammonium hexafluorosilicate (NH4)2SIF6 in a Roots pump operated at too low a temperature
Figure 4.11
Operating principle of a multi-stage Roots pump, process pump
Figure 4.12
ACP 120
Figure 4.13
A 100 L rear side with connections
Figure 4.14
A 203 H cross-section
Figure 4.15
A 1503 H process pumping station
Figure 4.16
Operating principle of a Roots pump
Figure 4.17
Operating principle of a gas-cooled Roots pump
Figure 4.18
No-load compression ratio for air for Roots pumps
Figure 4.19
Pumping speed of pumping stations with Okta 2000 and various backing pumps
Figure 4.20
Operating principle of a side channel vacuum pump
Figure 4.21
Degrees of freedom of a turbo-rotor
Figure 4.22
Operating principle of the turbomolecular pump
Figure 4.23
Specific turbopump pumping speeds
Figure 4.24
Pumping speed as a function of relative molecular mass
Figure 4.25
Pumping speed as a function of inlet pressure
Figure 4.26
Operating principle of a Holweck stage
Figure 4.27
Compression ratios of pure turbopumps and turbo drag pumps
Figure 4.28
Typical UHV residual gas spectrum (turbopump)
Figure 4.29
Standard HiPace turbopumps
Figure 4.30
ATH M magnetic-levitation turbopump
Figure 4.31
Example of turbopump accessories (for HiPace 300)

5 Vacuum measuring equipment

Figure 5.1
Design of a diaphragm vacuum gauge
Figure 5.2
Design of a capacitative diaphragm vacuum gauge
Figure 5.3
Operating principle of the Pirani vacuum gauge
Figure 5.4
Pirani vacuum gauge curves
Figure 5.5
Design of an inverted magnetron
Figure 5.6
Operating principle of an inverted magnetron
Figure 5.7
Design of a Bayard-Alpert vacuum gauge
Figure 5.8
Pressure measurement ranges and measurement principles
Figure 5.9
Application concepts DigiLine
Figure 5.10
ActiveLine application concepts
Figure 5.11
TPG 300 control unit for ModulLine sensors

6 Mass spectrometers and residual gas analysis

Figure 6.1
Total and partial pressure measurement
Figure 6.2
Components of a mass spectrometer
Figure 6.3
Operating principle of the 180° sector mass spectrometer
Figure 6.4
Sector field mass spectrometers: (a) Ion source, (b) Detector
Figure 6.5
Quadrupole deflection voltage
Figure 6.6
Stability diagram of a quadrupole filter
Figure 6.6b
Section through an axial ion source
Figure 6.7
Ionization as a function of electron energy
Figure 6.8
Fragment ion distribution of CO2
Figure 6.9
Grid ion source
Figure 6.10
Discrimination of EID ions
Figure 6.11
Crossbeam ion source
Figure 6.12
Gas-tight axial ion source
Figure 6.13
SPM ion source
Figure 6.14
PrismaPlus ion sources
Figure 6.15
Operating principle of a Faraday Cup
Figure 6.16
Secondary electron multiplier (SEM) SEV
Figure 6.17
Operating principle of continuous secondary electron multiplier (C-SEM)
Figure 6.18
QMS with gas inlet system and crossbeam ion source
Figure 6.19
Differentially pumped QMS with various gas inlets
Figure 6.20
Potential curve in an electrically biased ion source
Figure 6.21
90° off axis SEM

7 Leak detection

Figure 7.1
Bubble leak test on a bicycle tube
Figure 7.2
Working principle of a sector mass spectrometer
Figure 7.3
General leak detector flow chart
Figure 7.4
Operating principle of quartz window sensor
Figure 7.5
Vacuum diagram of the MiniTest quartz window leak detector on a system
Figure 7.6
Local leak detection with sniffing and vacuum methods
Figure 7.7
Integral leak detection with the vacuum method
Figure 7.8
Integral leak detection of enclosed objects with the sniffer method
Figure 7.9
Mass spectrum of a recipient with air leak
Figure 7.10
Leak testing unit for refrigerant hoses
Figure 7.11
Helium recovery unit

8 Contamination management solutions

Figure 8.1
Moore’s Law (documented by the number of transistors in Intel and AMD microprocessors)
Figure 8.2
Wafer handling with cassettes (left) and FOUPs (right)
Figure 8.3
Diamondlike crystal structure of Silicon
Figure 8.4
Classification of airborne molecular contamination AMC
Figure 8.5
AMC Sources in FOUPs
Figure 8.6
Airborne polar and non polar molecules
Figure 8.7
Gas-solid interaction at a surface
Figure 8.8
Surface sites
Figure 8.9
Surface after etching
Figure 8.10
Crystal growth at the edge of a wafer pattern
Figure 8.11
Pod regenerator process cycle