3.3.1 Non-detachable connections

Non-detachable connections in vacuum technology are achieved by welding, brazing or fusing, or by metalizing or sintering with subsequent brazing. In recent years, vacuum-resistant adhesives have also come into use to join components for applications that do not involve UHV technology. The chosen connection technology must be appropriately designed for the major requirements with respect to mechanical strength, temperature and alternating thermal loads, as well as the required gas-tightness. Material pairings such as metal-to-metal, glass-to-glass, glass-to-metal, metal-to-ceramic and glass-to-ceramic are used more or less frequently in vacuum technology. Metals are most often joined by means of welding and brazing. In glass equipment, the individual glass components are joined through fusion. Metal and glass connection by fusing or metalizing and fusing or brazing are used for UHV-compatible, bakeable viewports. Metals and ceramic connections produced by metalizing or sintering are common, for example, for vacuum current feedthroughs.